The Somali population has experienced a prolonged conflict spanning over two decades since December 1990, with more than 40% of the population living on less than US$ one dollar a day and 73% on less than US$ two dollars per day (World Bank 2011). The Somali population can be classified into pastoralists, agro-pastoralists, and coastal and riverine rural populations, with a third of these residing in urban settings. During this period, much of the public health infrastructure was destroyed with significant deterioration in the delivery of health services, while the sustained international partners’ support has significantly contributed to bridging the gap in the delivery of urgently needed essential health services. Somaliland and Puntland have remained relatively stable, where the peace dividend has mitigated the impact of some of the sizeable challenges encountered by the health system.

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